MEDICAL JOURNALS INDEX
, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-78-38, January 1976.8th Bethesda Conference of the American College of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Problems Associated with Aviation Safety
Aero Medical Association: Announcement: Formation of Committee on Pilot Aging, Journal of Aviation Medicine, Feb. 1953.
Aero Medical Association, Report of the Committee on Pilot Ageing and Allied Problems, March 30, 1954.
American Medical Association, Neurological and Neurosurgical Conditions Associated with Aviation Safety, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-81-3, February, 1981.
Anderson R, Gullett CC., Airline Pilot Disability:
Economic Impact of an Airline Preventive Medicine Program, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 1982
Note: Premature departure of senior air carrier pilot can cost the airline $6 million (in 1980$$) annually. (replacement pilot hiring, training, career amortization costs.)
Baker KH, Neuropsychological Testing of Pilots, Presentation, Flight Safety Foundation 36th Civil Aviation Safety Seminar, White Plains, N.Y., 1991.
Baker SP, Lamb MW, Human Factors in Crashes of Commuter Airplanes and Air Taxis, FAA Contract No. DTFA01-90-C-00046, May 11, 1992. [email@example.com]
Baker SP, Lamb, MW, Human Factors in Crashes of Commuter Airplanes, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1993 Jan;64(1):63-8. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Baker, SP, Li, G. et al., Pilots Involved in Multiple Crashes: "Accident Proneness" Revisited, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1995 Jan;66(1):6-10. [email@example.com]
Baker SP, Lamb MW, Li G, Dodd RS, Crashes of Instructional Flights, Aviat Space & Environ Med., 1996 Feb;67(2)105-10. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Baker SP, Lamb MW, Grabowski JG, Gebok G, Li G, Characteristics of General Aviation Crashes Involving Mature Male and Female Pilots, Aviat Space Environ Med., 2001 May;72(5):447-52. [email@example.com]
Balke B, Experimental Evaluation of Work Capacity as Related to Chronological and Physiological Aging, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-63-18, September, 1963.
88-09 Banich MT, et al, Cognitive Function Evaluation in the Medical Certification of Airmen: A Review of the Literature, Final Technical Report, Aviation Research Laboratory, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ARL-88-3/FAA-88-1, September 1988.
Banich MT, et al, Neuropsychological Screening of Aviators: A Review, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 1989 Apr;60(4):361-366.
Bartek P, Gaum, JG, Pilot Incapacitation: An Expression of Convergent Factors, Aerospace Medicine, 1972 Sep;43(9):974-977.
Benbasset,. J, et al, Retirement of Fighter Pilots with Incidentally Detected Illnesses, A Decision Analytic Model; J Occup Med, 1989 Jun;3(6): 513-17.
Bennett DR., Spike-Wave Complexes in "Normal" Flying Personnel, Aerospace Medicine, December, 1967, 1276-1282.
Bennett G, Quantifying the Safety Risk of Pilot Incapacitation, Presentation, Proceedings of the Flight Safety Foundation's 40th Annual International Air Safety Seminar, Tokyo, Japan, October 1987.
Berry CA, The Role of Physical Standards iin Jet and Rocket Aircraft Flight, Journal of Aviation Medicine, September, 1958, pp. 631-40.
Besco RO, A Longevity and Survival Analysis for a Cohort of Retired Airline Pilots, FAA Contract No. 92-P-13371, 1994.
Billings CE, et al., Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated
and actual flight, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1975 Mar;46(3):304-08.
Note: Extrapolation of simulator data to flight environment must be approached with considerable caution.
Billings CE, Reynard WD, Human factors in aircraft
incidents: results of a 7-year study, Aviat
Space Environ Med, 1984 Oct;55(10):960-65.
Note: Reports on NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS).
Billings CE, et al., Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1991 Mar;62(3):233-35
Boone JO, Functional Aging in Pilots: An Examination of a Mathematical Model Based on Medical Data on General Aviation Pilots, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-82-18, June 1982.
Booze, CF, An Epidemiological Investigation of Occupation Age, and Exposure in General Aviation Accidents, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-77-10, March 1977.
Booze CF, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airmen Applicants During Calendar Year 1971, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-74-5, May 1974.
Booze CF, et al, Postmortem Coronary Atherosclerosis Findings in General Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities: 1975-1977, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-80-8, February 1980
Booze CF, et al, Postmortem Coronary Atherosclerosis Findings in General Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities: 1975-77, Aviat Space Environ. Med., 1981 Jan;52(1):24-27
Booze CF, Health Examination Findings Among Active Civil Airmen, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-84-8, August 1984
Booze CF, Prevalence and Incidence of Disease Among Airmen Medically Certified During 1965, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-73-8, April 1973
Booze CF, Prevalence of Disease Among Active Civil Airmen, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-89-2, October 1988.
Booze CF, Prevalence of Selected Pathology Among Currently Certified Active Airmen, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-81-9, April 1981.
Booze, CF, Staggs, CM, A Comparison of Postmortem Coronary Atherosclerosis Findings in General Aviation Pilot Fatalities, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-85-6, August 1985.
Booze CF, Sudden In-Flight Incapacitation in General Aviation, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-87-7, August 1987.
Booze CF, Usage of Combined Airman Certification by Active Airmen: An Active Airman Population Estimate, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-68-5, March 1968.
Botwinick J, Aging and Behavior, 3rd. Ed., Springer Publishing Co., New York, 1984.
Braune R, Wickens CD, Individual Differences and Age-Related Performance Assessment in Aviators Part 2: Initial Battery Validation, Engineering-Psychology Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, EPL-83-7/NAMRL-83-2, February 1984.
Bruce RA, et al, Separation of Effects of Cardiovascular Disease and Age on Ventricular Function with Maximal Exercise, Am J Cardio, 1974 Dec;34:757-763.
Bruce RA, et al, Value of Maximal Exercise Tests in Risk Assessment of Primary Coronary Heart Disease Events in Healthy Men: Five Years' Experience of the Seattle Heart Watch Study, Am J Cardio, 1980 Sep;46(9):371-378.
Bruce, RA, Fisher, L.D., Exercise-Enhanced Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease vs. Age as Criteria for Mandatory Retirement of Healthy Pilots, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1987 Aug;58(8):792-798.
Bruckart JE., Analysis of Changes in the Pilot Population and General Aviation Accidents, Aviat Space Environ. Med., 1992 Jan; 63(1):75-79.
Bruggink GM, An American Tableau: The Changing Accident Experience, Flight Safety Digest, The Flight Safety Foundation, January 1991.
Bruggink GM, System Controls vs Human Variables, Human Factors Bulletin, Flight Safety Foundation, Jul/Aug 1977.
Bruggink, GM, The First Two Minutes, Flight Safety Digest, Flight Safety Foundation, May 1989.
Buley LE., Incidence, Causes and Results of Airline Pilot Incapacitation While on Duty, Aerospace Medicine, January 1969, 40(1):64-70.
Letter of Transmittal, John H. Cassady, Pres. Flight Safety Foundation to James T. Pyle, Administrator, Civil Aeronautics Administration, dtd. 21 Febr. 1958.
Castelo-Branco A., Cabral-SA A., Coelho Borges J., Comparative Study of Physical and Mental Incapacities Among Portuguese Airline Pilots Under and Over Age 60, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1985 Aug;56(8):752-757.
Chapman, JC, The Consequences of In-Flight Incapacitation
in Civil Aviation, Aviat., Space &
Environ. Med., June 1984, 55(6):497-500.
Note: Risk of accident due to cardiovascular failure less than 1 x 10/-10. This is 10 times better (less risk) than engineering design standards for mechanical systems - 1 x 10/-9. See Chapter 3, FAA Safety Handbook (2000).
Chiles WD, Jennings AE, Effects of Alcohol on Complex Performance, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-69-14, August 1969.
Chiles WD, Objective Methods for Developing Indices of Pilot Workload, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-77-15, July 1977.
Civil Aeronautics Board,, Letter to Wm. F. McKee, Administrator, FAA, dtd. May 5, 1966. Subject: Flight crew incapacitations while at the controls of an air carrier airplane, coming as a review of the fatal accident involving American Flyers accident, Ardmore, OK, April 22, 1966.
Cohen, Donna F., Statement on Pilot Cognition and Aging Before the House Aviation Subcommittee, July 18, 1979.
Collins WE, et al, Index of FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports: 1961 through 1989, FAA, Office of Aviation Medicine, DOT/FAA/AM-90/1, January, 1990.
Conference, Cardiovascular Problems Associated with Aviation Safety, 8th Bethesda Conference of the American College of Cardiology, April 25 & 26, 1975, Washington, D.C.
Danaher, JW, The Incidence of Incapacitation in Aircraft Accidents, Presentation at a Symposium on Aviation Medicine and the Air Line Pilot, Sponsored by the British ALPA, Heathrow, U.K., October 9-10, 1975.
Dark SJ, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airline Pilots, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-83-5, January, 1983.
Dark SJ, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airman Applicants in Calendar Years 1973 and 1974, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-76-10, October 1976.
Dark SJ, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airman Applicants in Calendar Years 1977 and 1978, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-80-19, October 1980.
Dark SJ, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airman Applicants in Calendar Years 1982 and 1983, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-85-9, September 1985.
Dark SJ, Davis AW, Characteristics of Medically Disqualified Airman Applicants in Calendar Years 1975 and 1976, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-78-25, September 1978.
Dark SJ, Medically Disqualified Airline Pilots, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-84-9, August 1984.
Dark SJ, Medically Disqualified Airline Pilots, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-86-7, June 1986.
Downey LE, Dark SJ, Medically Disqualified Airline Pilots in Calendar Year 1987 and 1988, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-90-5, June 1990.
Declaration of Elaine Bloomfield, for Hearing on October 22, 1990, CV 90-5253 TJH (Gx), EEOC v Lockheed Corp.
Declaration of Frank Austin, M.D., for Hearing on October 22, 1990, CV 90-5253 TJH (Gx), EEOC v Lockheed Corp.
Declaration of Karen Baker, for Hearing on December 10, 1990, CV No. 89-0517-AWT (JRx), EEOC v Lockheed Corp.
Declaration of T. Franklin Williams, M.D., for Hearing on October 22, 1990, CV 90-5253 TJH (Gx), EEOC v Lockheed Corp.
Dennis W, Age and Behavior, A Survey of the Literature, USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, TX, May, 1953.
Dille JR, Booze, CF, Accident Experience of Civilian Pilots with Static Physical Defects, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-76-7, June 1976.
Dille JR, Booze, CF, The 1975 Accident Experience of Civilian Pilots with Static Physical Defects, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-77-20, August 1977.
Dille JR, Booze, CF, The 1976 Accident Experience of Civilian Pilots with Static Physical Defects, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-79-19, August 1979.
Dille JR, Human Factors in General Aviation Accidents, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-66-27, July 1966.
Dodd RL, Airline Pilot's Views on Medical Licensing Standards, Aerospace Medicine, October 1973, 44(10):1183-1185.
Edwards HK., The Aged and Retiring Pilot, Journal of Aviation Medicine, February, 1955, pp. 73-75.
Engelberg, AL, et al, A Review of the Medical Standards of Civilian Airmen: Synopsis of a Two-Year Study, Journal of the American Medical Association, (JAMA), March 1986, 255(12):1589-1599.
Eyraud MY, Borowski MS, Age and pilot performance, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1985
Note: Central to this issue is a demonstration that older pilots are not necessarily unsafe pilots. Naval Safety Center data used. "Older" not defined in the abstract.
Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., FCF/CAA Medical Study
(Report No.1), New York, 21
Note: Reviews medical standards of non-rated aviation personnel - primarily air traffic controllers. Recommends that an age limitation be considered.
Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., FCF/CAA Medical Study
(Report No.2), , New York, 31 Mar. 1958.
Note: Reviews medical standards for rated personnel - pilots and flight engineers. No age limit consideration suggested, and no change in standards needed for introduction of jet aircraft.
Froom P, Bebassat J, et al, Air Accidents, Pilot Experience, and Disease-Related Inflight Sudden Incapacitation, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1988 Mar;59(3):278-81.
GAO Fact Sheet, Aviation Safety, FAA Is Considering
Changes to Aviation Medical Standards, GAO/RCED-90-68FS January 1990.
Note: Changes considered were never implimented.
GAO Fact Sheet, Aviation Safety, Information on FAA's Age
60 Rule for Pilots, GAO/RCED-90-45FS, November 1989.
Note: FAA lied to FAA regarding the "major studies" on which it "had relied" in refusing any and all waivers from and/or changes to the age 60 rule (see p. 17).
Gerathewohl S.J., Psychophysiological Effects of Aging: Developing a Functional Age Index for Pilots: I. A Survey of the Pertinent Literature, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-77-6, April 1977.
Gerathewohl S.J., Psychophysiological Effects of Aging: Developing a Functional Age Index for Pilots: II. Taxonomy of Psychological Factors, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-78-16, March 1978.
Gerathewohl S.J., Psychophysiological Effects of Aging:
Developing a Functional Age Index for Pilots: III. Measurement of Pilot
Performance, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, Am-78-27, August 1978.
Note: Sought "objective" measure of pilot performance as alternative to "subjective" opinion of check pilot. Concluded that numerically measured deviation from optimum flight path was such a measure.
Gilstrap R.W., Medical Excellence and Airline Pilots, The American Journal of Cardiology, October 31, 1975, 36:589-591.
Golaszewski R.S., The Influence of Total Flight Time,
Recent Flight Time and Age on Pilot Accident Rates, Acumenics Research and
Technology, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland,
Order No. DTRS57-83-P-80750, June 30, 1983.
Note: Discredited, rejected, and publication by FAA refused at time of delivery (1983) by the office and officer within FAA that had provided technical assistance to the author.
Golaszewski, R.S., General Aviation Safety Studies:
Preliminary Analysis of Pilot Proficiency, Abacus Technology Corp., in
association with Gellman Research Associates, Inc., Chevy Chase, MD, Contract
No. DTFA01-90-Y-01023. December
Note: Garbage study. Concluded that highest qualified and most experienced pilots had greater risk of accident than least qualified and experienced pilots. Major distortion of data - primarily denominator data - in risk equation.
Goode, J.H., Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue?, J Safety Res., 2003 Mar;34(3):309-13. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Gordon HW, Leighty, R., Importance of Specialized Cognitive Function in the Selection of Military Pilots, Journal of Applied Psychology, 1988 Jan, 73(1):38-45.
Guide PC, Gibson RS, An Analytical Study of the Effects of Age and Experience on Flight Safety, Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting - 1991.
Gurman EB, Test Batteries Used for Pilot Selection or Evaluation, Appendix A to Airline Pilot Age and Performance: A Review of the Literature, February 1992, CAMI Contract DTFA-02-90-90125.
Hardy DJ, Parasurama, R, Cognition and flight performance in older pilots. J Exp Psychol: Applied 1997; 3:313-48
Harper CR, et al, Study of Simulated Airline Pilot Incapacitation: Phase I - Obvious and Maximal Loss of Function, Aerospace Medicine, October 1970, 41(10):1139-1142.
Harper CR, et al, Study of Simulated Airline Pilot Incapacitation: Phase II, Subtle or Partial Loss of Function, Aerospace Medicine, September 1971, 42(9):946-948.
Hoffman, CC, Hoffman KP, Kay GG, The Roll that cognitive
ability plays in CRM. Paper
presented at NATO Symposium, Human Factors & Medicine Panel on
Collaborative Crew Performance in Complex Operational Systems, Edinburgh,
Scotland. April, 1998.
Note: Claims to relate CogScreen-AE to actual (aircraft) flight performance.
Holt GW, Taylo, WF, Carter ET, Airline Pilot Disability,
The Continued Experience of a Major US Airline,
Aviat Space Environ. Med., 1985 Oct;56(10):939-44.
Note: See 1987 study by same authors.
Holt GW, Taylor WF, Carter ET, Airline Pilot medical
disability: a comparison between three airlines with different approaches to
medical monitoring, Aviat Space Environ
Med, 1987 Aug;58(8):788-91.
Note: See 1985 study by same authors.
Horman HJ, Maschke P, On the relation between personality and job performance of airline pilots, Int J Aviat Psychol, 1996;6(2):171-8
Horst RL, Kay GG, Phase B Final Report, Cognitive Function Evaluation in Medical Certification or Airmen: Development and Validation of a Prototype Test Battery, ARD Corp., Columbia, MD, November, 1991.
House Report No. 2080, Better Management Needed of Medical Research on Aging, Committee on Government Operations, 89th Congress, 2d. Sess., September 26, 1966.
Hyland DT, Kay EJ, Deimler JD, Age 60 Project Experimental Evaluation of Pilot Performance, January 1993, CAMI Contract DTFA-02-90-90125.
Hyland DT, Ka, EJ, Deimler JD, Gurman EB, Airline Pilot Age and Performance: A Review of the Literature, February 1992, CAMI Contract DTFA-02-90-90125.
IALPA Study of Fail-Safety in BAC 1-11 Crew Complement, presented to The Industrial and PEL/MED Study Group, Dublin, Ireland, 5-7 December, 1966.
IOM Report: Airline Pilot Age, Health and Performance: Scientific and Medical Considerations, Report of a Study by the Committee to Study Scientific Evidence Relevant to Mandatory Age Retirement for Airline Pilots, Division of Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., March 1981.
James, M., Green, R., Airline Pilot Incapacitation Survey, Aviat Space Environ. Med, 1991 Nov;62(11):1068-72.
Johnson A Jr., Medical waivers: an extension of the pilot's
career, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1977 Apr;48(4):373-76.
Note: 1218 waivers granted in 1973 to 741 out of 4,057 rated officers in (military) Headquarters Command point up need for strong preventive medical program at Headquarters Command.
Jönsson F, Sundgre, N, Essential Hypertension in Airline Pilots, Aerospace Medicine, January 1969, 40(1):70-75.
Jordon, John L., Federal Air Surgeon, Letter to Mr. Samuel D. Woolsey, dtd. Sep 9, 1991
Kay EJ, Harris RM, Voros RS, Hillman DJ, Hyland DT, Deimler JD, Age 60 Project, Consolidated Database Experiments, Final Report, Hilton Systems Technical Report 8025-3C(R2): CAMI Contract No. DTFA-02-90-90125.
Kearneu PJ, Li G, Geographic Variations in Crash Risk of General Aviation and Air Taxis, Aviat Space & Environ Med., 2000 Jan;71(1):19-21.
Koonce, Dr. J., Letter to Capt. Samuel D. Woolsey, dtd., November 8, 1991.
Koonce, Dr. J., Letter to Mr. Richard B. Weeghman, Editor, The Aviation Consumer, dtd. November 15, 1991.
Krebs MB, Li G, Baker SP, Factors related to pilot survival in helicopter commuter and air taxi crashes, Aviat Space & Environ Med, 1995 Feb;66(2):99-103.
Kulak L, et al, Epidemiological Study of In-Flight Airline Pilot Incapacitation, Aerospace Medicine, June 1971, 42(6):670-672.
Landy FJ, et al, Alternatives to Chronological Age in Determining Standards of Suitability for Public Safety Jobs: Executive Summary, Center for Applied Behavioral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, January 31, 1992.
Lane JC, Risk of In-flight Incapacitation of Airline
Pilots, Aerospace Medicine, December
Note: Risk of accident from pilot incapacitation compared to engineering design standards (see FAA Safety handbook, Ch 3). Found 3-10 times better (less) than standards for mechanical systems.
Lategola MT, et al, Comparison of Status Variables Among Accident and Non-accident Airmen from the Active Airman Population, FAA, Office of Aerospace Medicine, AM 70-18A, December 1970.
Lategol, MT, The Use of Simple Indicators for Detecting Potential Coronary Heart Disease Susceptibility in the Third-Class Airman Population, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-72-26, July 1972.
Lavernhe J, et al, Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases Among the Flight Deck Personnel of an Airline, Aerospace Medicine, January 1969, 40(1):62-63.
Leighton-White RC, Airline Pilot Incapacitation in Flight, Aerospace Medicine, June 1972, 43(6)661-664.
LeTourneau DJ, Merren MD, Experience with Electroencephalography in Student Naval Aviation Personnel, 1961-1971: a Preliminary Report, Aerospace Medicine, November 1973, 44(11):1302-04.
Li G, Baker, SP, Crashes of commuter aircraft and air taxis. What determines survival?, J Occup Med 1993 Dec:35(12):1244-9. [email@example.com]
Li G, Pilot-Related Factors in Aircraft Crashes: A Review of Epidemiological Studies, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 1994 Oct;65(10):944-52. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Li G, Baker SP, Prior Crash and Violation Records of Pilots in Commuter and Air Taxi Crashes: A Case Control Study, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 1994 Nov;65(11):979-85. [email@example.com]
Li G, Baker SP, Crash and Violation Experience of Pilots Involved in Prior Commuter and Air Taxi Crashes: A Historical Cohort Study, Aviat Space & Environ Med., 1995 Dec;66(12):1131-35. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Li G, Baker SP, The epidemiology of aircraft fire in commuter and air taxi crashes, Aviat Space Environ Med., 1996 May;67(5):434-7. [email@example.com]
Li G, Baker SP, Injury Patterns in Aviation-Related Fatalities. Implications for Preventive Strategies, Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997 Sep;18(3):265-70. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Li G, Hooten EG, Baker SP, Butts JD, Alcohol in Aviation-Related Fatalities: North Carolina, 1985-1994, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1998 Aug;67(8):755-60. [email@example.com]
Li G, Baker SP, Correlates of Pilot Fatality in General Aviation Crashes, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1999 Apr;70(4):305-09. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Li G, Baker, SP, Grabowski JG, Rebok GW, Factors Associated With Pilot Error in Aviation Crashes, Aviat Space Environ Med., 2001 Jan;72(1):52-8. [email@example.com]
Li G, Baker SP, Lamb MW, Grabowski JG, Rebok GW, Human Factors in Aviation Crashes Involving Older Pilots, Aviat Space & Environ Med., 2002 Feb;73(2):134-8. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Li G, Baker SP, et al., Age, Flight experience, and risk of crash involvement in a cohort of professional pilots, Am J Epidemiol., May 15, 2003;157(10):874-80. [email@example.com]
Lovelace Foundation (author), Study of Physiologic and Psychologic Aging in Pilots, N.I.H. Grant No. 0051.8
Luykn, H.M.C., What Makes a Flyer Ill?, Journal of Aviation Medicine, December, 1957, pp. 523-30.
MacIntyre, N.R., et al, Longevity in Military Pilots: 37-Year Followup of the Navy's "1000 Aviators," Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., September 1978, 49(9):1120-1122.
Manning, G.W. et al, Aviation Cardiology in Canada, The American Journal of Cardiology, October 31, 1975, 36:576-583.
Martin-Saint-Laurent A, Lavernhe J, et al., Clinical
Aspects of inflight incapacitations in commercial aviation, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1990
Note: 10 cases of incapacitation in 20 years out of 1800 Air France pilots each flying 600 hrs/year - no accidents or incidents.
Mason, J.K., et al, Death From Coronary Disease While at the Controls of an Aircraft, Aerospace Medicine, September 1963, 34:858-862.
McCall, N.J., et al, A Survey of Blood Lipid Levels of Airline Pilot Applicants, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., June 1992, 63(6):533-537.
McCall, R.B., Fundamental Statistics for Behavioral Sciences, 4th Ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego, 1986.
McCormick, T.J., Lyons, T.J., Medical Causes of In-Flight Incapacitation: USAF Experiences 1978-1987, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., September 1991, 62(9):884-887.
McDonough R, Dopart K, Page E, Medical Risk Assessment
and the Age 60 Rule for Airline Pilots, Memorandum,
Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, September, 1990.
Note: Relied on discredited, rejected, and publication-refused 1983 Golaszewski Flight Time study.
McFadden KL, Policy improvements for prevention of
alcohol misuse by airline pilots, Hum
Factors, 1997 Mar;39(1):1-8.
Note: DWI conviction record better predictor than random alcohol testing for predicting pilot-error accidents.
McFadden KL, Predicting pilot-error incidents of US
airline pilots using logistic regression, Appl
Ergon, 1997 Jun;28(3):209-12.
Note: Youth, inexperience, and non-major airline employer were independent contributors to increased risk.
McFadden K, DWI convictions linked to a higher risk of alcohol-related aircraft accidents, Human Factors, 2002 Winter;44(4):522-9. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
McFarland RA, Airline Pilot in Higher Age Range (abstract), Journal of Aviation Medicine, August, 1952, p. 407.
McFarland RA, Airline Pilot in Higher Age Range, The Air Line Pilot, March, 1952, pp. 2-5, 15.
McFarland RA, Psycho-Physiological Problems of Aging in Air Transport Pilots, Journal of Aviation Medicine, June 1954, pp. 210,20.
Miles WR, Schriver BM, Aging in Air Force Pilots (abstract), Journal of Aviation Medicine, August, 1953, pp. 363,64.
Miura Y, et al., A 10-year retrospectiove review of airline transport pilots age 60 to 63 in Japan, Aviat Space Environ Med., 2002 May;73(5):485-7.
Mohler SR, Aircrew Physical Status and Career Longevity, Human Factors Bulletin, Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., Jan/Apr 1984.
Mohler, S.R., Booze, CF, U.S. Fatal General Aviation Accidents Due to Cardiovascular Incapacitation: 1974-75, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., October 1978, 49(10):1225-1228.
Mohler SR, et al, Aircraft Accidents by Older Persons, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-67-22, October 1967.
Mohler SR, Letter to Capt. Samuel D. Woolsey, Dtd. November 14, 1991.
Mohler SR, Modern Concepts in Pilot Aging, Human Factors Bulletin, Flight Safety Foundation, Inc., Nov/Dec 1978.
Mohler SR, Physiological Index as an Aid in Developing Airline Pilot Scheduling Patterns, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., March 1976, 47(3):238-247.
Mohler SR, Reasons for Eliminating the "Age 60" Regulation for Airline Pilots, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., August 1982, 52(8):445-454.
Mohler SR, Recent Findings on the Impairment of Airmanship by Alcohol, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-66-29, September 1966.
Mohler SR, The Predominant Causes of Crashes and Recommended Therapy, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-66-8, April 1966.
Moriarity JD, Psychiatric Problems in Aging, with Reference to Aero Medicine, Journal of Aviation Medicine, June, 1954, pp. 221-26.
Mortimer R, Some factors associated with Pilot age in
general aviation crashes. Paper presented at the 6th annual symposium on
aviation psychology, Columbus, OH.
Note: Garbage. Relied heavily on discredited, rejected and publication refused (1983) Golaszewski Flight Time Study.
Nagle F, Balke, The Gradational Step Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Capacity: An Experimental Evaluation of Treadmill and Step Test Procedures, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-64-3, January 1964.
NIA/IOM Study: Report of the National Institute on Aging Panel on the Experienced Pilots Study, Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, NIA, Bethesda, Md. 20205, August, 1981.
Nolan KP, Blass JP, Preventing Cognitive Decline, Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, February, 1992.
Norwood G, Jordan JL, Regulatory Aviation Medicine: Its Philosophies and Limitations, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-82-14, September 1982.
Norwood GK, The Philosophy and Limitations of FAA Aeromedical Standards, Policies and Procedures, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-71-25, June 1971.
Orford OR, Carter ET, Preemployment and Periodic Physical Examination of Airline Pilots at the Mayo Clinic, 1939-1974, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., February 1976, 47(2):180-184.
Orlady, H., ALPA Views on Pilot Selection, Monitoring and the Criteria for Release from Duties Involving Flying, Presented at the Flight Safety Foundation International Air Safety Seminar, Madrid Spain, November 17, 1966.
Orlady, H.W., Controlling the Air Safety Risk in Pilot Incapacitation, Presented at the Lloyd E. Buley Memorial Session; 8th International Symposium on Civil Aviation Medicine; Guadalajara, Mexico, October 23, 1973.
Orlady, H.W., Operational Aspects of Pilot Incapacitation in a Multicrew Airliner, The American Journal of Cardiology, October 31, 1975, 36:584-588.
Orlady, H.W., Pilot Incapacitation Revisited, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., #841614, 096-736X/85/9306-0705, (1985).
Orlady, H.W., The Operational Aspects of Pilot Incapacitation, Presented at the 8th Bethesda Conference, American College of Cardiology, Bethesda, Maryland, April 27, 1975.
OTA - Page, E., et al., Medical Risk Assessment and the Age 60 Rule for Airline Pilots, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, September, 1990.
Overall, J.E., Estimating Sample Size for Longitudinal Studies of Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Journal of Gerontology, February 1987, 42(2):137-141.
Panel Discussion, Would You Fly With These Pilots?, Aerospace Medicine, July 1973, 44(7):786-793.
Parker, ES, Noble, E., Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Functioning in Social Drinkers, Journal of Studies on Alcohol, July 1977, 38(7):1224-1232.
Parker PE, et al., Morbidity among ailrine pilots: the AMAS experience. Aviation Medicine Advisory Service, Aviat Space Environ Med, 2001 Sep;72(9):816-20. [Phillip.Parker@Brooks.af.mil]
Parmet AJ, Ground KE, Reported in-flight incapacitation:
the early birds of 1911, Aviat Space
Environ Med, 1987 Mar;58(3):276-8.
Note: The first accident due to in-flight incapacitation due to medical reasons (as of 1987) still remains unknown.
Piepgrass SR, et al, Limitations of the Exercise Stress Test in the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease in Apparently Healthy Men, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 1982 Apr;53(4):379-382.
Pollard DW, Survey of Air Carrier Inflight Illnesses: 1971-1975, Memorandum Report No. AAC-119-78-10(S), Protection and Survival Laboratory, FAA, CAMI, July 28, 1978.
Preston FS, Further Sleep Problems in Airline Pilots on World-wide Schedules, XXth International Congress of Aviation And Space Medicine, Nice, France, September 1972.
Preston, F.S., Twelve Year Survey of Airline Pilots, Aerospace Medicine, March 1968, 39:312-314.
Pridkowicz JK, et al, A Study of Coronary Atherosclerosis and General Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1975-76, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, January 1978.
Proper R, Research Planing Study of Aging Criteria, Final Report, The Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Albuquerque, NM. July 31, 1961.
Rayman RB, Myocardial Infarction: An In-flight Problem?, Aerospace Medicine, January 1974, 45(1):86-89.
Rayman RB, Sudden Incapacitation in Flight, 1 Jan. 1966 - 30 Nov. 1971, Aerospace Medicine, August 1973, 44(8):953-955.
Rebok GW, Gabrowski JG, Baker SP, Lamb MW, Willoughy S, Li G, Pilot Age and Performance as Factors in Aviation Crashes, Poster presented at annual meeting of Am Psych Assoc, Boston, MA, August, 1999 [Funded: NIA/NIH Grant RO1AG13642.]. [email@example.com]
Rebok GW, Li G, et al., Self-rated changes in cognition and piloting skills: a comparison of younger and older airline pilots, Aviat Space Environ Med, 2002 May;73(5):466-71.
Reighard HL, Mohler SR, Some Aspects of Sudden Incapacitation in Airmen Due to Cardiovascular Disease, Aerospace Medicine, December 1967, 38:1273-1275.
Robertson LS, Crash Involvement of Teenaged Drivers When Driver Education is Eliminated from High School, American Journal of Public Health, June 1980, 70(6):599-603.
Rohde CA, Ross A., Biostatistical Approach to the Epidemiology of Aircraft Accidents, Department of Biostatistics, The Johns Hopkins University, DOT/FAA Contract No. FA68 WA-1966.
Russell JC, Davis AW, Alcohol Rehabilitation of Airline Pilots, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-85-12, October 1985.
Ryan LC, Mohle, SR, The Current Role of Alcohol as a Factor in Civil Aircraft Accidents, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-80-4, May 1980.
Salthous, TA, Somberg BL., Isolating the Age Deficit in Speeded Performance, Journal of Gerontology, January 1982, 37(1):59-63.
Salvie ME, Evaluation of aging pilots: evidence, policy,
and future directions, Mil Med, 1994
Note: Suggests using EEOC consent decrees w/ Boeing, Lockheed, et al to assess FAA Class 1 medical certificate criteria.
Savely HE, Henry JP, A New Look at Aviation Physiology, Journal of Aviation Medicine, December, 1957, pp. 531-34.
Seipel JH, Wentz AE, Unsuspected Neurologic Disease in Aviation Personnel: Survival Following Seizures in Flight, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-64-6, 1963 -- GCRI.
Siegel PV, Booze CF, A Retrospective Analysis of Aeromedical Certification Denial Actions, January 1961 - December 1967, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-68-9, May 1968.
Siegel PV, Mohler SR, Cierebiej A, The Safety Significance of Aircraft Accident Post Mortem Findings, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-69-18, October, 1969.
Siegel PV, Mohler, S.R., Medical Factors in U.S. General Aviation Accidents, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-69-2, January 1969.
Taneja N, Wiegmann DA, Prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in pilots involved in fatal general aviation airplane accidents, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., 2002 Oct;73(10):1025-30.
Taylor JL et al., Relationship of CogScreen-AE to
flight simulator performance and pilot age,
Aviat Space Environ. Med, 2000 Apr;71(4):37380. [firstname.lastname@example.org]
NOTE: Claims relevance to age 60 rule - criticized in 2 later published comments - and later grant applications by Yesavage JA [senior researcher] deny relationship to age 60 rule.
Tenney DP, Age and airline accidents, J Psychol, 1988 Jan;122(1):15-20.
Note: Neither age nor experience was significant for accidents among corporate/executive pilots. (Author identified with USAir, Inc., but elationship to airline accidents is unclear in the abstract.)
Tsang, P.S., Age and Pilot Performance. In: Telfer, R.A., Moore, P.J., eds. Aviation training: learners, instruction, and organization. Ashgate Publishing, Brookfield, VT 1997:21-40
Stokes AF, et al, Cognitive Function Evaluation in the Medical Certification of Airmen, Final Technical Report, Aviation Research Laboratory, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, ARL-88-4/FAA-88-2, August 1988.
Stokes AF, et al, Testing the Tests - An Empirical Evaluation of Screening Tests for the Detection of Cognitive Impairment in Aviators, Aviat., Space & Environ. Med., August 1991, 62(8):783-788.
Stratto, KL, M.D., Medical Care of Airline Pilot Personnel, Journal of Aviation Medicine, December 1954, pp. 630-636.
Stuck AE, van Gorp WG, Josephson KR, Morgenstern H., Beck JC, Multidimensional Risk Assessment versus Age as a Criterion for Retirement of Airline Pilots, Journal of the American Gerontological Society, 40:526-532, 1992.
Swiete JC, et al, Hypertension in the Elderly is Associates with White Matter Lesions and Cognitive Decline, Anals of Neurology, Vol 30, No. 6, December, 1991.
Szafran J, Decision Processes and Ageing, Presentation, International Colloquium on Biological Bases of Age Changes in Behavior, St. John's College, Univ. of Cambridge, England, August 6-9, 1963.
Tang PC, Dille, JR, Inflight Loss of Consciousness: A Case Report, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-63-21, September, 1963.
Taniguchi M., et al., Prognostic and clinical soignificance of newly acquired complete right bundle branch block in Japan Airline pilots, Intern Med., Jan 2003;42(1):21-4.
Taylor J, et al. Relationship of CogScreen-AE to Flight Simulator Performance and Pilot Age. Aviat Space Environ Med.,2000 Apr;71(4):737-80.
Trites DK, et al. Aircraft Accidents vs. Characterstics of Pilots, Aviation Facilities Study Group (Harding Commission) Aviation Facilities, December, 1955 (extract, pp. 1-27).
Dennis W, Age and Behavior, A Survey of the Literature, USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project No. 21-0202-0005, May 1953.
Veregge E.J, Type Airman Certification as Related to Accidents, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-67-23, October 1967.
Wallace JM, et al., High refractive errors and the
accident/incident rate in Canadian medical category 1 pilots, Aviat Space Environ Med, 1997
Note: Granting waivers has not affected adversely the accident or incident rate, therefore has not compromised safety.
Weber F, Kron M, Medical risk factors in fatal military
aviation crashes: a case-control study, Aviat
Space Environ Med, 2003 May;74(5):560-63.
Note: German AF: In aircrew who pass all the criteria for fitness to fly there are no important medical risk factors for fatal crashes that can be detected by periodic medical examinations.
Wentz AE., Studies on Aging in Aviation Personnel, FAA Office of Aviation Medicine, AM-64-1, August, 1964 [GCRI document.]
Wickens C.D, et al, Individual Differences and Age-Related Changes: Refinement and Elaboration of an Information Processing Performance Battery with Aviation Relevant Task Structures, Final Report, Engineering-Psychology Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, EPL-85-1/NAMRL-85-1, February 1985.
Wilkening R., The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Commercial Aviation, Avia Space Environ Med., 2002 Mar;73(3):194-202
Yakimovich, et al. CogScreen as a predictor of flight performance in Russian pilots , Presentation, 65th annual meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, San Antonio, TX. May, 1994.
Yesavage JA, Taylor .JL, et al., Relationship of age and simulated flight performance. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999 Jul; 47:819-23.
Note: Although age was "significantly" correlated with decreased simulator performance, age explained 22% or less of variance, hence, other factors (not identified - ?) are also important. [email@example.com]
Zeller AF et al, Current Flying, Age, Experience and Non-Jet Accidents, Aerospace Medicine, March 1963, 34:222-225.
Zeller AF, Moseley HG, Aircraft Accidents as Related to Pilot Age and Experience, Journal of Aviation Medicine, April, 1957, pp. 177-79.